Standard Deviation by Quarter
It appears that the file cannot be read because it contains non-UTF-8 characters. Let's try reading it again with a different encoding. The most common encodings are 'utf-8', 'latin-1', and 'iso-8859-1'. Let's try 'latin-1' first. If that doesn't work, we'll try 'iso-8859-1'.
It seems there is no column named 'date' in the dataset. Let's take a look at the column names to see what we have.
It appears that there are trailing spaces in the column names. The column we're interested in is 'date ' (with a trailing space), not 'date'. This might be the case with other columns as well. Let's strip the whitespace from the column names and retry the conversion and calculation.
The data has been successfully loaded and the 'date' column has been converted to quarters. However, similar to the 'date' column, there seems to be a trailing space in the 'raised' column. The correct name of the column is 'raised ', not 'raised'. Let's correct this and then calculate the standard deviation of the 'raised' column, grouped by the quarter.
Here are the calculated standard deviations of the 'raised' column, grouped by the calendar quarter:
The NaN values indicate quarters where there was only one data point, and hence, the standard deviation is undefined.
Please note that the standard deviation values are rounded to two decimal places for simplicity. If you need more precision, you can adjust the formatting.
Here's the area chart with the standard deviations of the 'raised' column grouped by quarter. The chart has been annotated with "tomtunguz.com" at the bottom right, and the title is "Increasing Standard Deviations in Series As". The chart has been saved as a PNG file and can be downloaded using the following link:
Download the chart